Reviews Theology

Review: Getting to Know the Church Fathers

Getting to Know the Church Fathers: An Evangelical Introduction by Bryan M. Litfin. Grand Rapids: Brazos, 2007. 301 pp. $14.47 paperback.

Bryan Litfin (Ph.D., University of Virginia), associate professor of theology at Moody Bible Institute, provides a much needed introduction to the church fathers for evangelical Christians. Burdened by the fact that many evangelicals lack any kind of connection to the rich history of the church, Litfin writes so that Christians will learn to think of the fathers as those who can play a guiding role for the faith today (p. 18). Every Christian should find himself on the path of orthodoxy—a path the fathers labored to create (p. 29). When Christians get to know the church fathers and what they believed, they will “begin to understand something of the grandeur of the community to which we belong…the ‘communion of saints’” (p. 29).

In his introduction, Litfin explains how one is considered a church father: he/she must be “ancient, orthodox in doctrine, holy in life, and approved by other Christians” (p. 19). He then highlights three common misconceptions evangelicals have about these giants of the faith: 1) the church fathers were not biblical; 2) the church fathers were Roman Catholics; and 3) the church fathers represent the “fall” of Christianity (pp. 20-27). Perhaps the second is the most widely held misconception. Unfortunately, evangelicals have equated “catholic” with “Roman Catholic” and have thus been robbed of their rightful spiritual heritage (p. 22). “Catholic,” as it relates to the fathers, writes Litfin, “referred to the unified community of all true believers in the world: those whose loyalty was given to the risen Christ” (p. 23).

In each of the ten chapters, Litfin covers the life and influence of a church father. It is difficult to coalesce the themes of the fathers (which rightly includes one woman, Perpetua), for each had many different themes associated with their lives and eras. Nevertheless, Litfin masterfully communicates his main idea: church fathers matter because they are people whom God used at a critical time in history to defend and continue the spread of the gospel. This means that present-day evangelicals are part of something much greater than their own relationship with God (p. 264).

Three areas of strength in Litfin’s book are noteworthy. First, Litfin’s writing style is engaging. He makes ancient history accessible and compelling as he begins each chapter with a modern story that will help connect the reader with the church father’s life and work. His devotional style moves the reader toward worshiping God for what he has done in history more than the average biographical work. Each chapter includes reflection questions and a few resources to “dig deeper” into the particular father’s life. Litfin also provides a select portion of writing from each father to close the chapters.

Second, modern day theological controversies continually rise to the surface in each chapter. This may seem obvious (there is nothing new under the sun), but Litfin helps today’s Christian understand where controversies came from, what the orthodox response was, and why it matters for today. There are an abundance of examples; a brief sampling will suffice.

Already in the first quarter of the second century, Ignatius fought two main opponents: legalistic Jews and Gnostics. Both had heretical views of Jesus. Litfin writes, “Both of these christological errors had harmful consequences: they located salvation somewhere other than the cross” (p. 45). Faulty christology has not been extinguished today, and the discerning Christian will detect where legalism and Gnosticism still rear their ugly heads. Ignatius is proof that theological battles can be fought on multiple fronts. Moreover, Ignatius reminds Christians to cling to the cross if they are zealous to authentically live out their faith. As Litfin says, “Understanding the doctrine of grace inevitably yields gracious people” (p. 46).

Irenaeus played a key role in determining what it meant to be orthodox in doctrine, thus establishing himself as one of the first to contribute to the emergence of catholic Christianity (pp. 77, 79). Irenaeus was also one of the first patristic writers to understand human history as the story of God’s redemption. Irenaeus also blessed the church with the “Rule of Faith.” The Rule is the basic synopsis of the Bible (pp. 90-91), and it helps believers to remember that, above all else, the Bible centers on what God has done in Jesus Christ to bring about salvation to sinful men and women.

Athanasius’s life can be summed up in the phrase de decretis (“Defending the Nicene Creed”). Athanasius’ main opponent was Arian, who charged that Jesus was not eternal but was created and therefore could not be God (p. 175). After Nicaea, Emperor Constantine tried to order Bishop Athanasius to readmit Arius to the church but Athanasius refused, for Arius rejected the Nicene principle of homoousios (the Father and Son were of the same substance), which Arian rejected (p. 178). For Athanasius, this was not simply a matter of semantics. “The Incarnate Christ had to be fully man and fully God in order to lift human beings back into God’s life” (p. 182). Orthodox evangelicals are indebted to Athanasius for articulate responses and tremendous courage as he stood against the world in the fight for truth (p. 183).

Third, Litfin winsomely expounds the events surrounding the lives of the fathers. Litfin details the nature of completing the canon when covering Tertullian (pp. 108-110). In the chapter on Perpetua, the reader can nearly feel the pressure of the Roman persecution that weighed down on the martyrs (pp. 132-135). Reading on Augustine, one can hear faint whispers of the Pelagian debate (pp. 226-230). Litfin also covers the rise of monasticism in Chrysostom’s chapter (pp. 192-197).

Weaknesses are hard to find in Litfin’s book; nevertheless a few must be mentioned. Some readers, particularly those in academia, may balk at Litfin’s use of informal writing (contractions, second person, etc.), but the devotional nature of the book justifies Litfin’s choices in these matters. What is of greater concern is Litfin’s glossing of some of the fathers’ character. At times, he paints the fathers more graciously than history has done, almost to a fault. Origen, for example, was later accused of heresy for his view of subordinationism, yet Litfin writes, “To be fair we must remember that the theological position of the Christian church on these points had not yet been firmly established” (p. 157). This seems to be a simplistic response to a very disturbing theology found in Origen. Litfin also fails to mention much at all about Tertullian’s involvement with the Montanists, which was considered a heretical sect by many orthodox believers.

One further suggestion, perhaps more for the publisher than Litfin, is that a Scripture index and glossary of terms would be welcome resource. Regarding the index, most foreign phrases are explained, but lay readers may find some terms distracting and lose track of Litfin’s point.

Overall, Getting to Know the Church Fathers is a helpful, lively, and accessible introduction to the early Christian church. This book will help evangelicals who are unfamiliar with patristic church history grow familiar with their spiritual ancestors and the issues, places, and events that shaped early Christianity. Litfin’s closing exhortation is a welcome one for evangelicals longing for a breath of fresh, ancient air to give life to a contemporary, and sometimes stale, faith: “Embrace your inner catholic, and see where it will take you” (p. 265).


Long, Overseas Engagements Will Give Sweet Victory

A lot of you know that I’m engaged while living here in South Africa.  Carly lives in Nebraska, and will finish up her degree at UNL  in three weeks.  I wouldn’t recommend long engagements to anyone, especially Christians, however when you are separated by God’s call to minister the gospel and 10,000 miles of ocean, you fight through it and endure.

St. Augustine offers a wonderful comfort for why longsuffering and pain usually always result in sweet victory.  He says:

The victorious general marches home in triumph, but there would have been no victory if he had not fought, and the greater the danger in the battle, the greater the joy of the triumph…There is no pleasure in eating and drinking unless it is preceded by the discomfort of hunger and thirst…It is customary, too, for girls who are engaged to be married to delay the wedding for fear that a husband who has not suffered the trials of a long courtship may think his bride too cheaply won (Confessions, p. 162).

Well, it wasn’t Carly’s decision to delay our wedding to make me suffer, but she did willingly and joyfully join me on this adventure knowing that would be our road to travel.  It has been hard and wonderful.  And I’m thankful that in God’s great wisdom and insight, he thought it good for both of us to endure this time apart to make sure that our life together would not be a cheap victory.

Life Theology

Distinguishing Between Love and Lust

Augustine of Hippo, the great Christian theologian of the 4th Century, struggled mightily with sexual addiction before his conversion to Jesus.  In his autobiography, Confessions, he writes about his problem between figuring out what was love and what was lust in his early life:

Bodily desire, like morass, and adolescent sex welling up within me exuded mists which clouded over and obscured my heart, so that I could not distinguish the clear light of true love from the murk of lust.

I doubt that this is uncommon for most people — especially for nonbelievers, but for Christians as well.  So often we “feel” with our bodies and seldom understand what true love is.

In Proverbs, Solomon says to his son, “For the lips of a forbidden woman drip honey, and her speech is smoother than oil, but in the end she is bitter as wormwood, sharp as a two-edged sword.  Her feet go down to death; her steps follow the path to Sheol; she does not ponder the path of life; her ways wander, and she does not know it” (5:3-6).  Obviously, this “love” is really love.  It’s lust.  It’s deceptive.  It’s adulterous (7:19).  This “love” gets you place in line to hell.  This “love” will lead to death, not an abundant life.  It seeks to steal, kill, and destroy true happiness.

I’m not a counselor, or a doctor, or a pastor  yet.  But I know that true romantic love is rooted in the gospel of Christ.  It is reflective of Ephesians 5:22-33.  True love is about service and sacrifice and joy and delight and rejoicing in Christ, not the person.  C.S. Lewis talked about gifts from the Lord being “the sunbeam” and God himself as the sun.  The beam from the sun is not to be delighted in, the sun is.  In the same way, God’s gifts are like sunbeams.  They lead us to the greater glory of God himself.  That is what true love should do.  Lust only distracts us from God and causes us to be idolaters.

Seek your satisfaction in Jesus above all things, and soon the murky fog of distinguishing between love and lust will clear into a bright summer day filled with heavenly delight and joy, not guilt and shame.

Life Theology

The Christian Life is All of Grace

In 1 Timothy 1:11-17, Paul uses some key vocabulary to make it unmistakeably plain to the reader that the Christian life, and its service, is all of grace and none of personal merit.  The gospel-centered life is all about Christ.  We decrease as we make Christ look great.  Listen to Paul.  He writes:

  • That he has been entrusted with the gospel (v. 11).
  • God has given him strength and appointed him to service (v. 12).
  • That he has received mercy (vv. 13, 16)
  • The grace of the Lord has overflowed for him (v. 14).
  • He has faith and love in Christ (v. 14).
  • That Jesus came to save helpless sinners (v. 15).
  • That he received mercy so that Jesus might display perfect patience (v. 16).
  • That all honor and glory belongs to “the king of ages, immortal, invisible, the only God” (v. 17).

The Christian life is all of grace.  Let us love and serve and teach and correct by God’s grace.  When this happens, we show Jesus to be the most supremely valuable treasure in the universe.

Life Theology

Idolatry and Grumbling Are More Closely Related Than You Might Think

In 1 Corinthians 10, Paul warns his Christian readers to not be idolaters (v. 7) and not to grumble (v. 10) in the same breath.  At first glance, these probably don’t seem like related sins.  But if we zoom in on the context, Paul is clear: you grumble because you are an idolater.

The story of the Israelites, Paul says, was written for us as an example (vv. 6, 11).  The Israelites did little right as they made their way through the wilderness.  Their perspective was limited.  Their hearts were not inclined toward God.  They constantly looked to creation instead of Creator — which is, in essence, idolatry.  Instead of looking to their future Messiah, they participated in pagan festivals (Ex. 32:6).  Instead of seeking pleasure in God, they sought pleasure in sexual relationships with Gentile women (Num. 25:1, 9).  Instead of looking to Christ as their sustenance, they complained about the manna and lack of water (Num. 21:5).  Instead of praising God for being delivered from slavery, they grumbled about wandering around in the desert (Num. 14:2).

Created things were never meant to satisfy our hearts and longings.  Created things, from the beginning, were meant to point us toward the Creator, who gives us life, breath, and everything (Acts 17:25).  If we worship idols (anything other than God), we will always grumble because they will always let us down.  Whether that idol is a sexual partner, food or drink, the American dream, or anything else you can think of, it will let you down.  And when you get let down, you will grumble.  I see it in my life — even in the smallest details.  When I put my hope in people, I get let down.  When I put my hope in organization or situations running smoothly, I get let down.  When I put my hope in my own merits and talents, I get let down.  When I put my hope in anything other than the person and work of Jesus, I am disappointed.  But praise be to God that Jesus will never let us be disappointed (Rom. 10:11).

Let’s look to Jesus.  If we do, our perspective will change.  We will be able to honestly rejoice always, pray without ceasing, and give thanks in every circumstance (1 Thes. 5:16-18).  If we seek Christ, our hearts will find true satisfaction.  Creation was never meant to provide that.

Truly our hearts are restless until they rest in You.
– Augustine